View credits, reviews, tracks and shop for the gram Vinyl release of Made In England on Discogs. Label: The Rocket Record Company - • Format: Vinyl LP, Album gram • Country: US • Genre: Rock • Style: Classic Rock/5(11). View credits, reviews, tracks and shop for the Vinyl release of Made In England on Discogs/5(2). View credits, reviews, tracks and shop for the Vinyl release of The Big Hits From England & U.S.A. on Discogs/5(3).
From classics to obscure gems to new bands, find it here. Forgot your username? Send username. Forgot your password? Reset password. Already have an account? Log in. An error has occured - see below:. You have been subscribed to Amoeba newsletter. Filter By Format. Down in the Weeds, Where the Bright Eyes. Tanya Donelly. Candid LP Whitney. Vinyl records can be warped by heatimproper storage, exposure to sunlight, or manufacturing defects such as excessively tight plastic shrinkwrap on the album cover.
A small degree of warp was common, and allowing for it was part of the art of turntable and tonearm design. Standard practice for LPs was to place the LP in a paper or plastic inner cover. This, if placed within the outer cardboard cover so that the opening was entirely within the outer cover, was said to reduce ingress of dust onto the record surface. Singles, with rare exceptions, had simple paper covers with no inner cover.
A further limitation of the gramophone record is that fidelity steadily declines as playback progresses; there is more vinyl per second available for fine reproduction of high frequencies at the large-diameter beginning of the groove than exist at the smaller-diameters close to the end of the side. Another problem arises because of the geometry of the tonearm.
Master recordings are cut on a recording lathe where a sapphire stylus moves radially across the blank, suspended on a straight track and driven by a lead screw. Most turntables use a pivoting tonearm, introducing side forces and pitch and azimuth errors, and thus distortion in the playback signal. Various mechanisms were devised in attempts to compensate, with varying degrees of success.
See more at phonograph. There is controversy about the relative quality of CD sound and LP sound when the latter is heard under the very best conditions see Analog vs. It is notable, however, that one technical advantage with vinyl compared to the optical CD is that if correctly handled and stored, the vinyl record will be playable for decades and possibly centuries,  which is longer than some versions of the optical CD.
Guidelines for proper vinyl storage include not stacking records LP) top of each other, avoiding heat or direct sunlight and placing them in a temperature controlled area which will help prevent vinyl records from warping and scratching. Collectors store their records in a variety of boxes, cubes, shelves and racks. Even so, these early electronically recorded records used the exponential-horn phonograph see Orthophonic Victrola for reproduction.
CD-4 LPs contain two sub-carriers, one in the left groove wall and one in the right groove wall. CD-4 sub-carriers could be played with any type stylus as long as the pickup cartridge had CD-4 frequency response. The recommended stylus for CD-4 as well as regular stereo records was a line contact or Shibata type. Equipment of modest quality is relatively unaffected by these issues, as the amplifier and speaker will not reproduce such low frequencies, but high-fidelity turntable assemblies need careful design to minimize audible rumble.
Tonearm skating forces and other perturbations are also picked up by the stylus. This is a form of frequency multiplexing as the control signal restoring force used to keep the stylus in the groove is carried by the same mechanism as the sound itself. High fidelity sound equipment can reproduce tracking noise and rumble. During a quiet passage, woofer speaker cones can sometimes be seen to vibrate with the subsonic tracking of the stylus, at frequencies as low as just above 0.
Another reason for very low frequency material can be a warped disk: its undulations produce frequencies of only a few hertz and present day amplifiers have large power bandwidths. For this reason, many stereo receivers contained a switchable subsonic filter. Some subsonic content is directly out of phase in each channel. If played back on a mono subwoofer system, the noise will cancel, significantly reducing the amount of rumble that is reproduced. High frequency hiss is generated as the stylus rubs against the vinyl, and dirt and dust on the vinyl produces popping and ticking sounds.
The latter can be reduced somewhat by cleaning the record prior to playback. Due to recording mastering and manufacturing limitations, both high and low frequencies were removed from the first recorded signals by various formulae.
With low frequencies, the stylus must swing a long way from side to side, requiring the groove to be wide, taking up more space and limiting the playing time of the record. At high frequencies, hiss, pops, and ticks are significant.
These problems can be reduced by using equalization to an agreed standard. During recording the amplitude of low frequencies is reduced, thus reducing the groove width required, and the amplitude at high frequencies is increased.
The playback equipment boosts bass and cuts treble so as to restore the tonal balance in the original signal; this also reduces the high frequency noise.
Thus more music will fit on the record, and noise is reduced. The current standard is called RIAA equalization. It was agreed upon in and implemented in the United States in ; it was not widely used in other countries until the s. Prior to that, especially fromsome different formulae were used by the record manufacturers. In Joseph P. Maxwell and Henry C. Harrison from Bell Telephone Laboratories disclosed that the recording pattern of the Western Electric "rubber line" magnetic disc cutter had a constant velocity characteristic.
This meant that as frequency increased in the treble, recording amplitude decreased. Conversely, in the bass as frequency decreased, recording amplitude increased. Otherwise, bass modulation became excessive and overcutting took place into the next record groove. When played back electrically with a magnetic pickup having a smooth response in the bass region, a complementary boost in amplitude at the bass turnover point was necessary. Miller in reported that when complementary boost at the turnover point was used in radio broadcasts of records, the reproduction was more realistic and many of the musical instruments stood out in their true form.
West in and later P. This meant that the electrical recording characteristics of Western Electric licensees such as Columbia Records and Victor Talking Machine Company in the era had a higher amplitude in the midrange region. Brilliance such as this compensated for dullness in many early magnetic pickups having drooping midrange and treble response. Over the years a variety of record equalization practices emerged and there was no industry standard.
Evidence from the early technical literature concerning electrical recording suggests that it wasn't until the — period that there were serious efforts to standardize recording characteristics within an industry. Heretofore, electrical recording technology from company to company was considered a proprietary art all the way back to the Western Electric licensed method used by Columbia and Victor.
Broadcasters were faced with having to adapt daily to the varied recording characteristics of many sources: various makers of "home recordings" readily available to the public, European recordings, lateral-cut transcriptions, and vertical-cut transcriptions. The NAB, among other items, issued recording standards in for laterally and vertically cut records, principally transcriptions.
When the record was played back using a complementary inverse curve, signal-to-noise ratio was improved and the programming sounded more lifelike. The authors disclosed electrical network characteristics for the Columbia LP curve. This was the first such curve based on formulae. This was intended for use by hi-fi amplifier manufacturers.
If records were engineered to sound good on hi-fi amplifiers using the AES curve, this would be a worthy goal towards standardization. Besides also being a battle of disc size and record speed, there was a technical difference in the recording characteristics. Ultimately, the New Orthophonic curve was disclosed in a publication by R.
Moyer of RCA Victor in He traced RCA Victor characteristics back to the Western Electric "rubber line" recorder in up to the early s laying claim to long-held recording practices and reasons for major changes in the intervening years. It eventually became the technical predecessor to the RIAA curve.
Hence the RIAA curve did not truly become a global standard until the late s. Further, even after officially agreeing to implement the RIAA equalization curve, many recording labels continued to use their own proprietary equalization even well into the s. Overall sound fidelity of records produced acoustically using horns instead of microphones had a distant, hollow tone quality.
Some voices and instruments recorded better than others; Enrico Carusoa famous tenor, was one popular recording artist of the acoustic era whose voice was well matched to the recording horn. It has been asked, "Did Caruso make the phonograph, or did the phonograph make Caruso? Delicate sounds and fine overtones were mostly lost, because it took a lot of sound energy to vibrate the recording horn diaphragm and cutting mechanism. There were acoustic limitations due to mechanical resonances in both the recording and playback system.
Some pictures of acoustic recording sessions show horns wrapped with tape to help mute these resonances. Even an acoustic recording played back electrically on modern equipment sounds like it was recorded through a horn, notwithstanding a reduction in distortion because of the modern playback.
Toward the end of the acoustic era, there were many fine examples of recordings made with horns. Electric recording which developed during the time that early radio was becoming popular benefited from the microphones and amplifiers used in radio studios.
The early electric recordings were reminiscent tonally of acoustic recordings, except there was more recorded bass and treble as well as delicate sounds and overtones cut on the records.
This was in spite of some carbon microphones used, which had resonances that colored the recorded tone. The double button carbon microphone with stretched diaphragm was a marked improvement. Alternatively, the Wente style condenser microphone used with the Western Electric licensed recording method had a brilliant midrange and was prone to overloading from sibilants in speech, but generally it gave more accurate reproduction than carbon microphones.
It was not unusual for electric recordings to be played back on acoustic phonographs. The Victor Orthophonic phonograph was a prime example where such playback was expected. In the Orthophonic, which benefited from telephone research, the mechanical pickup head was redesigned with lower resonance than the traditional mica type. Also, a folded horn with an exponential taper was constructed inside the cabinet to provide better impedance matching to the air. As a result, playback of an Orthophonic record sounded like it was coming from a radio.
Eventually, when it was more common for electric recordings to be played back electrically in the s and s, the overall tone was much like listening to a radio of the era. Magnetic pickups became more common and were better designed as time went on, making it possible to improve the damping of spurious resonances. Crystal pickups were also introduced as lower cost alternatives, LP). The dynamic or moving coil microphone was introduced around and the velocity or ribbon microphone in Both of these high quality microphones became widespread in motion picture, radio, recording, and public address applications.
Over time, fidelity, dynamic and noise levels improved to the point that it was harder to tell the difference between a live performance in the studio and the recorded version. This was especially true after the invention of the variable reluctance magnetic pickup cartridge by General Electric in the s when high quality cuts were played on well-designed audio systems.
There were important quality advances in recordings specifically made for radio broadcast. The intent of the new Western Electric system was to improve the overall quality of disc recording and playback.
The newly invented Western Electric moving coil or dynamic microphone was part of the Wide Range System. It had a flatter audio response than the old style Wente condenser type and didn't require electronics installed in the microphone housing.
Signals fed to the cutting head were pre-emphasized in the treble region to help override noise in playback. Groove cuts in the vertical plane were employed rather than the usual lateral cuts. The chief advantage claimed was more grooves per inch that could be crowded together, resulting in longer playback time. Additionally, the problem of inner groove distortion, which plagued lateral cuts, could be avoided with the vertical cut system.
Wax masters were made by flowing heated wax over a hot metal disc thus avoiding the microscopic irregularities of cast blocks of wax and the necessity of planing and polishing.
Vinyl pressings were made with stampers from master cuts that were electroplated in vacuo by means of gold sputtering. Amplifiers and cutters both using negative feedback were employed thereby improving the range of frequencies cut and lowering distortion levels. Radio transcription producers such as World Broadcasting System and Associated Music Publishers AMP were the dominant licensees of the Western Electric wide range system and towards the end of the s were responsible for two-thirds of the total radio transcription business.
Developmentally, much of the technology of the long playing record, successfully released by Columbia incame from wide range radio transcription practices. Goldmark, Rene' Snepvangers and Bend It - Various - Made In England (Vinyl S. Bachman in made it possible for a great variety of record companies to get into the business of making long playing records.
Radio listeners heard recordings broadcast and this in turn generated more record sales. The industry flourished. Technology used in making recordings also developed and prospered. There were ten major evolutionary steps that improved LP production and quality during a period of approximately forty years. At the time of the introduction of the compact disc CD inthe stereo LP pressed in vinyl was at the high point of its development. Still, it continued to suffer from a variety of limitations:.
Audiophiles have differed over the relative merits of the LP versus the CD since the digital disc was introduced. Modern anti-aliasing filters and oversampling systems used in digital recordings have eliminated perceived problems observed with very early CD players. There is a theory that vinyl records can audibly represent higher frequencies than compact discs, though most of this is noise and not relevant to human hearing.
Due to the distance required between grooves, it is not possible for an LP to reproduce as low frequencies as a CD. High frequency sensitivity decreases as a person ages, a process called presbycusis. For the first several decades of disc record manufacturing, sound was recorded directly on to the "master disc" at the recording studio. From about on earlier for some large record companies, later for some small ones it became usual to have the performance first recorded on audio tapewhich could then be processed or edited, and then dubbed on to the master disc.
A record cutter would engrave the grooves into the master disc. Early versions of these master discs were soft LP)and later a harder lacquer was used. The mastering process was originally something of an art as the operator had to manually allow for the changes in sound which affected how wide the space for the groove needed to be on each rotation.
As the playing of gramophone records causes gradual degradation of the recording, they are best preserved by transferring them onto other media and playing the records as rarely as possible. They need to be stored on edge, and do best under environmental conditions that most humans would find comfortable. Where old disc recordings are considered to be of artistic or historic interest, from before the era of tape or where no tape master exists, archivists play back the disc on suitable equipment and record the result, typically onto a digital format, which can be copied and manipulated to remove analog flaws without any further damage to the source recording.
For example, Nimbus Records uses a specially built horn record player  to transfer 78s. Anyone can do this using a standard record player with a suitable pickup, a phono-preamp pre-amplifier and a typical personal computer. However, for accurate transfer, professional archivists carefully choose the correct stylus shape and diameter, tracking weight, equalisation curve and other playback parameters and use high-quality analogue-to-digital converters.
As an alternative to playback with a stylus, a recording can be read optically, processed with software that calculates the velocity that the stylus would be moving in the mapped grooves and converted to a digital recording format.
This does no further damage to the disc and generally produces a better sound than normal playback. This technique also has the potential to allow for reconstruction of broken or otherwise damaged discs.
Groove recordings, first designed in the final quarter of the 19th century, held a predominant position for nearly a century—withstanding competition from reel-to-reel tapethe 8-track cartridgeand the compact cassette.
Inthe compact disc surpassed the gramophone record in unit sales. Vinyl records experienced a sudden decline in popularity between and when the major label distributors restricted their return policies, which retailers had been relying on to maintain and swap out stocks of relatively unpopular titles.
First the distributors began charging retailers more for new product if they returned unsold vinyl, and then they stopped providing LP) credit at all for returns. Retailers, fearing they would be stuck with anything they ordered, only ordered proven, popular titles that they knew would sell, and devoted more shelf space to CDs and cassettes.
Record companies also deleted many vinyl titles from production and distribution, further undermining the availability of the format and leading to the closure of pressing plants. This rapid decline in the availability of records accelerated the format's decline in popularity, and is seen by some as a deliberate ploy to make consumers switch to CDs, which unlike today, were more profitable for the record companies.
In spite of their flaws, such as the lack of portability, records still have enthusiastic supporters. Vinyl records continue to be manufactured and sold today,  especially by independent rock bands and labels, although record sales are considered to be a niche market composed of audiophilescollectorsand DJs.
Old records and out-of-print recordings in particular are in much demand by collectors the world over. See Record collecting. Many popular new albums are given releases on vinyl records and older albums are also given reissues, sometimes on audiophile-grade vinyl.
In the United States, annual vinyl sales increased by Many electronic dance music and hip hop releases today are still preferred on vinyl; however, digital copies are still widely available. This is because for disc jockeys "DJs"vinyl has an advantage over the CD: direct manipulation of the medium. DJ techniques such as slip-cueingbeatmatchingand scratching originated on turntables.
With CDs or compact audio cassettes one normally has only indirect manipulation options, e. With a record one can place the stylus a few grooves farther in or out, accelerate or decelerate the turntable, or even reverse its direction, provided the stylus, record playerand record itself are built to withstand it. Figures released in the United States in early showed that sales of vinyl albums nearly doubled inwith 1. Sales have continued to rise into the s, with around 2.
In artist Jack White sold 40, copies of his second solo release, Lazarettoon vinyl. The sales of the record beat the largest sales in one week on vinyl since The sales record was previously held by Pearl Jam 's Vitalogywhich sold 34, copies in one week in Inthe sale of vinyl records was the only physical music medium with increasing sales with relation to the previous year.
Sales of other mediums including individual digital tracks, digital albums and compact discs have fallen, the last having the greatest drop-in-sales rate. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. InCBS released the CX format, downward compatible for higher dynamic range and noise reduction. VinylVideo was a 45 RPM format to store a low resolution black and white video on record. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gramophone record. For the magazine, see Phonograph Record magazine.
Disc-shaped vinyl analog sound storage medium. Play media. See also: LP record. Further information: High fidelity. Main article: Laser turntable.
See also: Recording medium comparison. Main article: Unusual types of gramophone records. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. For other uses, see Broken Record disambiguation. Further information: Analog recording vs. Further information: Production of phonograph records. See also: Vinyl revival. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. April Archived from the original on Wired UK. Information Week.
The New York Times. The talking phonograph. Scientific American, 14 December, Retrieved Time Inc: 87— Music Educators JournalVol. The Recording and Reproduction of Sound revised and enlarged 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Howard W.
London: British Library. Archived PDF from the original on 22 December Retrieved 16 December The New York TimesFebruary 23,p. Archived at the Wayback Machine Front page. Cambridge University Press. University Press of Florida. Archived from the original on July 11, Retrieved July 11, Archived from the original on March 29, Retrieved September 27, Peyton's Big Damn Band".
Archived from the original on 5 November Shipping vinyl records through the mail sounds like a harrowing experience. With increasing pressure on delivery companies and couriers alike to pile more packages into each van per trip, it's no surprise that vinyl packaging issues are a hot topic on the net. I may have made the part about the stasis device up.
But the other recommendations are also time-worn examples of taking things a little too far I especially love the recommendation to use a pizza box! Let me explain Vinyl Packaging Advice 1 Good advice, but better options are available!
Vinyl Packaging Advice 2 Bubble-wrap armageddon. Vinyl Packaging Advice 4 Time consuming method. Vinyl Packaging Advice 5 Better package options available, inefficient method. Vinyl Packaging Advice 6 Eek! Package chopping! Whilst not exhaustive or guaranteed, following the below guidelines will mean that when you are shipping vinyl records, you should be just fine:. If you are shipping vinyl records in the mail, you need a reliable, mass-produced, cost-effective, readily available, easy and quick to use, attractive packaging option.
Options like these:. For Inch Vinyl LP's: the heavy-duty option, trusted by international vinyl distributors around the world - good for up to 7 vinyls with variable height, buffer edge protection and tough corrugated exterior CLP. If you would like to talk to us about shipping vinyl records by mail, or any other packaging related challenges, don't hesitate to contact us hereor via our phone number located at the bottom of the page. June 24, Lil Packaging. Let's get to the point. Examples of over-enthusiastic vinyl packaging advice: Vinyl Packaging Advice 1 Good advice, but better options are available!
Vinyl Records in Bend on sioprovcabradeperfscormarcodenmenssol.co See reviews, photos, directions, phone numbers and more for the best Music Stores in Bend, sioprovcabradeperfscormarcodenmenssol.cog: England. About this site: sioprovcabradeperfscormarcodenmenssol.co is a directory of independent record shops that offer new and used vinyl, turntables, LPs, 45s, colored vinyl, record player parts, DJ equipment and turntable repair services. Inquire at your nearest store to sell your vinyl record collection or have your vinyl records appraised. Store profiles may be updated and edited by the store staff. The Greatest Vinyl Records of All Time By Marhubeng updated over 5 years ago. The greatest vinyl records of all time by Liza Lentini. Publication by Engaged Media. Edited by Bob Guccione Jr. Only vinyl and nothing after No novelties, special collector releases etc. 1 – 25 of Missing: England.
Sep 15, · Compared to compact discs and digital music, the vinyl record may seem obsolete. Despite this, there is a hardcore group of vinyl enthusiasts who still collect not only new vinyl records, but older ones as well. If you wanted to sell a vinyl collection or get it appraised for insurance purposes, you must first know how old each record is.
In the case of Live Album by Grand Funk Railroad, not only were the red vinyl pressings limited to promotional copies, but only one record of the two record set was pressed on red vinyl! Different covers. Often, particularly in the s, Japanese records were released with different covers than their U.S. counterparts. This was often a. What you’ll need: Vinyl, boiling water, flat-bottomed pyrex dish, block of wood How to: Fill dish with an inch of water. Dip in vinyl, using wood block to prevent waviness, and bend to 90º.
About this site: sioprovcabradeperfscormarcodenmenssol.co is a directory of independent record shops that offer new and used vinyl, turntables, LPs, 45s, colored vinyl, record player parts, DJ equipment and turntable repair services. Inquire at your nearest store to sell your vinyl record collection or have your vinyl records appraised. Store profiles may be updated and edited by the store staff.
The LP (from "long playing" or "long play") is an analog sound storage medium, a phonograph record format characterized by a speed of 33 1 ⁄ 3 rpm, a or inch ( or cm) diameter, and use of the "microgroove" groove sioprovcabradeperfscormarcodenmenssol.couced by Columbia in , it was soon adopted as a new standard by the entire record industry. Apart from a few relatively minor refinements and the. Vinyl Record Price Guide. Follow these three easy steps to find the value of vinyl records using Discogs, the largest physical music Database on the web. Discogs is a user-generated Database with more than 12 million copies of music listed. It’s also a Marketplace where users can buy and sell records.
View credits, reviews, tracks and shop for the Vinyl release of The Big Hits From England & U.S.A. on Discogs/5(3).
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