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Note: It is preferable for links to be visible at all times, since users navigating via the keyboard include switch users, those using techniques that generate keyboard strokes slowly, screen magnification software users, screen reader users working with sighted colleagues, keyboard only users and those navigating using voice recognition software. However, Success Criterion 2. An on-line newspaper contains many sections of information: a search function, a corporate banner, sidebars, minor stories, how to contact the newspaper, etc.
The lead story is located in the middle of the page. The first link that the user reaches when tabbing through the page is titled "Skip to Lead Story". Activating the link moves visual focus to the story. Pressing tab again takes the user to the first link in the main story.
A Web page includes a variety of navigation techniques on each page: a bread crumb trail, a search tool, a site map, and a list of related resources. The first link on the page is titled "Skip to Main Content". A user activates the link to skip over the navigation tools. If this is a sufficient technique for a success criterion, failing this test procedure does not necessarily mean that the success criterion has not been satisfied in some other way, only that this technique has not been successfully implemented and can not be used to claim conformance.
The objective of this technique is to provide a way to pause movement or scrolling of content. If the user needs to pause the movement, to reduce distraction or to have time to read it, they can do so, and then restart it as needed.
This mechanism can be provided either through interactive controls that conform to WCAG or through keyboard shortcuts. If keyboard shortcuts are used, they are documented. A site contains a scrolling news banner at the top of the page. Users who need more time to read it can press the Escape key to pause the scrolling.
Pressing Escape again restarts it. A Web page contains a link labeled "How to tie a shoe" which links to a Flash animation. Text immediately preceding the link informs the user that pressing the spacebar will pause the animation and restart it again. Use the mechanism provided in the Web page or by the user agent to pause the moving or scrolling content. This technique applies to any technologies or methods supporting the implementation of an activity which does not require timed interaction for its functionality.
The objective of this technique is to provide users with all the time they need to complete an activity. This technique involves providing a specified activity which does not require timed interaction.
Users are allowed as much time as they need to interact with the activity. An interactive exam for a course provides all questions on one Web page. Users can take as much time as they need to complete it. In an interactive game, users can take as much time as they like on their turn instead of having to complete their move within a limited amount of time. In an online auction, each bidder can submit only one bid rather than submitting multiple competitive bids based on timing. The bidding is open for a full day, providing enough time for anyone to complete the simple bid form.
Once bidding is closed, the best bid wins. Top Ten Web Design Mistakes of The objective of this technique is to provide a second version of video content that provides extended audio descriptions. One of the difficult things about creating traditional audio descriptions is that the narrator sometimes has to provide a lot of information during very short pauses in dialogue. Extended audio description temporarily pauses the audio and video to allow critical information to be delivered when pauses in dialogue are insufficient for adequate description.
Providing a second version of the movie with extended audio descriptions will make this content accessible for blind people who need to hear not only the dialogue but also the context and other aspects of the video that are not communicated by the characters' dialogue alone, and for which there is insufficient time during the natural dialogue.
Because it disrupts viewing for those who do not need the additional description, techniques that allow you to turn the feature on and off are often provided. Alternately, versions with and without the additional description can be provided. An alternate version of an online video of a family escaping from a burning building: there is a continuous dialogue between the husband and wife about where the children are. Meanwhile, in the background, a wall caves in. This is important information in the story because it will block their exit from that part of the building.
The video track halts same frame is repeated while a narrator gives the details about the wall falling and the video continues. A training film has narrative that runs almost continuously throughout. An alternate version is available for people who have difficulty viewing the video portion. The alternate version freezes the video and provides audio description of key information.
Extended Audio Description. Check that the video halts for extended audio description when there is not enough space to include necessary narration between the natural dialogue. If the alternate version s are on a separate page, check for the availability of link s to allow the user to get to the other versions.
Note: This technique must be combined with other techniques to meet SC 1. See Understanding SC 1. The objective of this technique is to allow users who cannot hear to be able to access real-time synchronized media broadcasts. It is more difficult to create accurate real-time captions because there is little time to correct mistakes or to listen a second time or consult someone to be sure the words are accurately reproduced.
It is also harder to simplify or paraphrase information if it is flowing too quickly. Real-time typing text entry techniques exist using stenographic and rapid typing technologies. Re-voicing speech-to-text where a person listens to speech and then carefully re-voices it into a computer trained to their speech is used today for telephone relay services and may be used in the future for captioning. Eventually speech-to-text with correction will be possible. A television studio uses a real-time captioning service to create captions for its evening news online.
A user watches an online seminar on their mobile device, including captioning provided through the use of Communication Access Real-time Translation CART. The captions provided also benefit in-person participants who need captioning and can view the information on their own device. Check that a procedure and policy are in place to ensure that captions are delivered in real-time.
Programming technologies that have standard components programmed to interface with accessibility APIs. The objective of this technique is to allow assistive technology to understand Web content so that it can convey equivalent information to the user through an alternate user interface.
Sometimes content is not created using markup language but rather using a programming language or tools. In many cases, these technologies have interface components that are already programmed to interface with accessibility APIs. If an author uses these components and fills in the properties e.
However, if an author wants to create a user interface component that is new and they cannot use standard components, then they need to be sure to add the accessibility provisions themselves - and implement them in a way that is compatible with the accessibility API.
A Web page uses java to create an applet. A group of authors wants to create an entirely new type of interface component so they cannot use existing Java objects. They use Java swing classes to create their component because the Java swing classes already have provisions for connecting to different accessibility APIs. Using the Java swing classes they are able to create an interface component that exposes its name and role, is able to be set by AT and alerts AT to any updates.
The control then interacts directly with assistive technology running the user agent on systems that support MSAA. The objective of this technique is to minimize the distraction caused by blinking content and enable users to re-focus on the other content on the page. Blinking content can be created using a variety of technologies, many of which include options to loop blinking content continuously or to otherwise specify the amount of time the blinking content is displayed.
Limiting the blinking of content to five seconds minimizes the distraction that blinking can cause. This will benefit people with certain types of learning disabilities and people with low vision. An animated image is used to highlight items on sale.
Within a list of items for purchase, an image of a red tag followed by the phrase "On sale" is used to indicate items being offered at a reduced price. The image of the red tag blinks on loading of the page and stops within five seconds.
For each item that blinks, determine if the interval between the start and end of the blinking is less than five seconds. The objective of this technique is to provide information to users about what will happen when a change to a form control results in a change of context.
Because changing the value of a form control does not typically result in a change of context, it is important that authors provide instructions that make the user aware of the behavior in advance. Where possible, Two (File is a good idea to programmatically associate the instructions describing the change with the form control itself.
Provide instruction on the Web page with reading order that precedes the user interface element that causes change of context by change of setting. For a multi-step process where users must complete particular steps in order to reach the user interface element where changes of setting would cause a change of context, provide the instruction as part of the process prior to the step where they would encounter the change of context.
In the case of an intranet where user training is required prior to the use of a Web application where user interface elements that cause changes of context when settings are changed, instruction is provided as part of the training. A series of radio buttons at the top of a page include options for German, French and Spanish. Instructions precede the buttons that instruct the user that the language will be changed upon selecting an option.
A 50 question online survey displays one question at a time. Instructions appear at the beginning of the survey that explain that users will be taken to the next question of the survey upon selecting an answer to each question. Locate content where changing the setting of a form control results in a change of context.
Check to see that an explanation of what will happen when the control is changed is available prior to the controls activation. The objective of this technique is to ensure that when color differences are used to convey information, such as required form fields, the information conveyed by the color differences are also conveyed explicitly in text.
The schedule for sessions at a technology conference is organized into three tracks. Sessions for Track 1 are displayed over a blue background. Sessions in Track 2 are displayed over a yellow background. Sessions in Track 3 are displayed on a green background. After the name of each session is a code identifying the track in text: T1 for Track 1, T2 for Track 2, and T3 for Track 3. Next to the title of each session is an icon consisting of a colored circle with a number in the middle showing what track it belongs to: blue circles with the number 1 represent track 1, yellow circles with the number 2 represent Track 2, and green circles with the number 3 represent Track 3.
Each icon is associated with a text alternative reading "Track 1," "Track 2," or "Track 3," as appropriate. A form contains several required fields. The labels for the required fields are displayed in red. Note: Asterisks may not be read by all screen readers in all reading modes and may be difficult for users with low vision because they are rendered in a smaller size than default text.
It is important for authors to include the text indicating that asterisk is used and to consider increasing the size of the asterisk that is presented. An on-line loan application explains that green buttons advance in the process and red buttons cancel the process.
A form contains a green button containing the text Go. The instructions say "Press the button labeled Go to submit your results and proceed to the next step. Check that the information conveyed is also available in text and that the text is not conditional content.
The purpose of testing for violations of the general and red flash thresholds is to allow people who have photosensitive seizures to view Web sites without encountering material that is likely to cause a seizure.
Warnings can be provided but people may miss them and children may not be able to read or understand them. With this technique all material is checked and if it violates flash or red flash thresholds it is either not put on the site or it is modified so that it does not violate the thresholds. Note 1: There are some simple tests that can be run for particular simple types of flashing.
For example:. If material flashes 3 times per second or less then the simple test in G Ensuring that no component of the content flashes more than three times in any 1-second period can be used. If material flashes in only one place on screen at a time and is quite small then the simple test in technique G Keeping the flashing area small enough can be used. Note 2: For all other types, a tool is needed to keep track of all the factors and apply them to the video on a time-continuous basis. An animation of a thunderstorm shows six flashes of lightning.
The flashes are so fast and large that the general flash threshold is violated when tested with a flash analysis tool. The animation is modified to create a short pause after each pair of lightning flashes. After the changes are made, the animation does not violate the general flash threshold.
The objective of this technique is to make sure that users can read text that is presented over a background. This technique goes beyond the 4. If the background is a solid color or all black or all white then the contrast ratio of the text can be maintained by making sure that each of the text letters have a contrast ratio with the background.
If the background or the letters vary in relative luminance or are patternedthen the background around the letters can be chosen or shaded so that the letters maintain a contrast ratio with the background behind them even if they do not have that contrast ratio with the entire background. The contrast ratio can sometimes be maintained by changing the relative luminance of the letters as the relative luminance of the background changes across the page.
Another method is to provide a halo around the text that provides the necessary contrast ratio if the background image or color would not normally be sufficiently different in relative luminance. A black background is chosen so that light colored letters that match the company's logo can be used.
Text is placed over a picture of the college campus. Since a wide variety of colors and darknesses appear in the picture the area behind the text is fogged white so that the picture is very faint and the maximum darkness is still light enough to maintain a contrast ratio with the black text written over the picture.
Contrast Analyser — Application. Contrast Ratio Analyser - online service. Colour Contrast Analyser - Firefox Extension. Color Contrast Samples. Atypical colour response. Tool to convert images based on color loss so that contrast is restored as luminance contrast when there was only color contrast that was lost due to color deficiency.
List of color contrast tools. Measure the relative luminance of each letter unless they are all uniform using the formula:. Note: For aliased letters, use the relative luminance value found two pixels in from the edge of the letter. Measure the relative luminance of the background pixels immediately next to the letter using same formula.
L1 is the relative luminance of the lighter of the foreground or background colors, and. L2 is the relative luminance of the darker of the foreground or background colors. For Success Criterion 1. Note: When evaluating this success criterion, the font size in points should be obtained from the user agent or calculated on font metrics in the way that user agents do. If the background is a solid color or all black or all white then the relative luminance of the text can be maintained by making sure that each of the text letters have 4.
If the background or the letters vary in relative luminance or are patterned then the background around the letters can be chosen or shaded so that the letters maintain a 4. For example, if a letter is lighter at the top than it is a the bottom, it may be difficult to maintain the contrast ratio between the letter and the background over the full letter.
In this case, the designer might darken the background behind the letter, or add a thin black outline at least one pixel wide around the letter in order to keep the contrast ratio between the letter and the background above 4. For example, if a page is very light on one edge and fades to very dark on the other edge, there is no color that can run across the page and meet the contrast guidelines on both edges.
One way of addressing this would be to change the lightness of the letters as well so that each letter always meets the contrast ratio for the background that is immediately behind the letter. A black background is chosen so that light colored letters that match the company logo can be used.
Since a wide variety of colors and shades appear in the picture, the area behind the text is fogged white so that the picture is very faint and the maximum darkness is still light enough to maintain a 4. The objective of this technique is to avoid flashing at rates that are known to cause seizures if the flashes are bright and large enough.
Since some users may be using screen enlargers, this technique limits the flashing of any size content to no more than three flashes in any 1-second period. Most Two (File does not flash at all and even content that blinks does not blink this fast except on rare occasions.
Therefore, in order to avoid having to carry out the more complex testing specified by the Success Criteria, one could follow this technique to ensure that content only flashes one, two, or at most three times in any 1-second period. Note 2: Regarding 3.
Content has lightning flashes. Content is designed so that lightning only flashes two or three times without a pause in flashing.
The objective of this technique is to ensure that keyboard users do not become trapped in a subset of the content that can only be exited using a mouse or pointing device.
A common example is content rendered by plug-ins. Plug-ins are user agents that render content inside the user agent host window and respond to all user actions that takes place while the plug-in has the focus. If the plug-in does not provide a keyboard mechanism to return focus to the parent window, users who must use the keyboard may become trapped in the plug-in content.
This problem can be avoided by using one of the following mechanisms to provide a way for users to escape the subset of the content:. Ensuring that the keyboard function for advancing focus within content commonly the tab key exits the subset of the content after it reaches the final navigation location.
Providing a keyboard function to move the focus out of the subset of the content. Be sure to document the feature in an accessible manner within the subset. If the technology used in the subset of the content natively provides a "move to parent" keyboard command, documenting that command before the user enters the plug-in so they know how to get out again. If the author uses a technology that allows users to enter the sub-content with keyboard and does not allow users to exit the sub-content with keyboard by default i.
Once a user tabs into an applet, further tabs are handled by the applet preventing the person from tabbing out. However, the applet is designed so that it returns keyboard focus back to the parent window when the person finishes tabbing through the tab sequence in the applet. A page that includes content that is not accessibility-supported contains instructions about how to move focus back to the accessibility-supported content via the keyboard.
The instructions precede the non accessibility-supported content. The help information available from the content that is not accessibility supported documents how to move focus back to the accessibility-supported content via the keyboard, and the help information can be accessed via the keyboard.
The help information available for the Web page documents how to move focus from the content that is not accessibility supported to the accessibility-supported content via the keyboard, and the help information can be accessed via the keyboard. If keyboard focus appears to be trapped in any of the content, check that help information is available explaining how to exit the content and can be accessed via the keyboard.
The objective of this technique is to identify the purpose of a link from the link and its sentence context. The sentence enclosing the link provides context for an otherwise unclear link. The description lets a user distinguish this link from links in the Web page that lead to other destinations and helps the user determine whether to follow the link. Note that simply providing the URI of the destination is generally not sufficiently descriptive.
Note: These descriptions will be most useful to the user if the additional information needed to understand the link precedes the link. If the additional information follows the link, there can be confusion and difficulty for screen reader users who are reading through the page in order top to bottom. A Web page contains the sentence "To advertise on this page, click here. Although the link phrase 'click here' is not sufficient to understand the link, the information needed precedes the link in the same sentence.
In the news summary containing the sentence "The Smallville Times reports that the School Board chose a school calendar that starts on August Note: Although this example satisfies the Success Criterion, putting information needed to understand the link after the link in this way is awkward for those who are reading through the document with a screen reader.
Check that text of the link combined with the text of its enclosing sentence describes the purpose of the link. The objective of this technique is to allow users who cannot hear or read text rapidly to be able to access synchronized media material. For those who communicate primarily in sign language it is sometimes less preferable and sometimes not possible for them to read and understand text at the rate it is presented in captions.
For these latter individuals it is important to provide sign language presentation of the audio information. One universally compatible way of doing this is to simply embed a video of the sign language interpreter in the video stream. This has the disadvantage of providing a lower resolution image that cannot be easily enlarged without enlarging the entire image.
Note 1: If the video stream is too small, the sign language interpreter will be indiscernible. When creating a video steam that includes a video of a sign language interpreter, make sure there is a mechanism to play the video stream full screen in the accessibility-supported content technology. Otherwise, be sure the interpreter portion of the video is adjustable to the size it would be had the entire video stream been full screen. Note 2: Since sign language is not usually a signed version of the printed language, the author has to decide which sign language to include.
Usually the sign language of the primary audience would be used. If intended for multiple audiences, multiple sign languages may be used. Refer to advisory techniques for multiple sign languages.
Example 1: A television station Two (Chris & Strakas Algorhythmic Mix) - Please (3) - One a sign language interpreter in the corner of or beside its on-line news video. Includes discussion of signing both written and spoken originals. Useful information about how to display the sign language interpreter in relation to the original synchronized media content is provided in Chapter 13, "Editing".
Note: These techniques may need to be adapted for Web-based presentation. Check to see that dialogue and important sounds are being conveyed by the interpreter visible on screen. The objective of this technique is to make the definition of a word, phrase, or abbreviation available by providing the definition, either within the same Web page or in a different Web page, and establishing a link between the item and its definition.
Links are a powerful option for providing access to the definition of a word, phrase, or abbreviation. A user can use the link to find the definition quickly and easily, and then return to his place in the content via the user agent's Back button.
Technical terms and abbreviations in an article about sports injuries are linked to definitions in a medical dictionary. A textbook contains a glossary of new vocabulary words introduced in each chapter. The first occurrence of each of these words is linked to its definition in the glossary. A general glossary of abbreviations is provided. All occurrences of abbreviations are linked directly to the appropriate definition within that glossary.
The word "modulo" is jargon used in Web content about mathematics. A definition for modulo is included within the Web page. Each occurrence of the word modulo is linked to its definition. A Japanese idiom is linked to its definition. This example uses a link within the page to navigate to the definition of an idiomatic expression. The objective of this technique is to allow authors to include sound behind speech without making it too hard for people with hearing problems to understand the speech.
Making sure that the foreground speech is 20 db louder than the backgound sound makes the speech 4 times louder than the background audio. For information on Decibels dBrefer to About Decibels.
A narrator is describing a riot scene. The volume of the riot scene is adjusted so that it is 20 db lower than the announcer's volume before the scene is mixed with the narrator. This example demonstrates a voice with music in the background in which the voice is the appropriate 20 DB above the background. The voice foreground is recorded at Audio Example: Foreground is 20 decibels above the background mp3.
My speaking voice right now is 20 decibels above the background which is the music. This is an example of how it should be done. The audio example above is visually represented below in a snapshot of the file in an audio editor. A section is highlighted that contains foreground and background. It is a much larger wave than the section that contains only background. This example demonstrates a voice with music in the background in which the voice is not 20 DB above the background.
The voice foreground is at decibels and the music background is at about decibels making the foreground only 2 decibels louder than the background. Audio Example: Foreground is less than 20 decibels above the background mp3. The voice which is the foreground is only about 2 decibels above the background. Therefore is difficult to understand for a person who is hard of hearing. It is hard to discern one word from the next. This is an example of what not to do.
The highlighted section contains foreground and background. The wave is almost the same size the section that contains only background, which means the background is too loud in comparison to the foreground voice.
About Decibels by Gregg Vanderheiden. The objective of this technique is to ensure that the order of content presented to assistive technologies allows the user to make sense of the content. Some techniques permit the content to be rendered visually in a meaningful sequence even if this is different from the order in which the content is encoded in the underlying source file.
For example, when mixing languages with different directionality in HTML, the bidirectional algorithm may position punctuation in the wrong location in the visual rendering. The visual rendering problem could be corrected by moving the punctuation in the content stream so that the bidirectional algorithm positions it as desired, but this would expose the incorrect content order to assistive technology. The content is both rendered in the correct order visually and exposed to assistive technology in the correct order by using markup to override the bidirectional algorithm.
When rendered visually, white space characters such as space or tab may not appear to be part of the content. However, when inserted into the content to control visual formatting, they may interfere with the meaning of the content. At a larger granularity, controlling the placement of blocks of content in an HTML document using layout tables may produce a rendering in which related information is positioned together visually, but separated in the content stream.
Since layout tables are read row by row, if the caption of an illustration is placed in the row following the illustration, it may be impossible to associate the caption with the image. A Web page from a museum exhibition contains a navigation bar containing a long list of links. The page also contains an image of one of the pictures from the exhibition, a heading for the picture, and a detailed description of the picture.
The links in the navigation bar form a meaningful sequence. The heading, image, and text of the description also form a meaningful sequence. CSS is used to position the elements on the page. Linearize content using a standard approach for the technology e. With this technique, a link to the collated document of captions and audio description is provided. The collated document could be at another location on the same Web page or at another URI.
A link to the collated document is immediately adjacent to the non-text content. The link can be immediately before or after the synchronized media content. If the collated document is on the same Web page as other content then put "End of document" at the end so that they know when to stop reading and return to their previous place.
If a Back button will not take the person back to the point from which they jumped, then a link back to the non-text content location is provided.
Check that it is a valid link that points directly to the collated document of this particular synchronized media. Check for the availability of a link or back function to get the user back to the original location of the synchronized media content.
All technologies that contain interactive elements and define a default tab order for interactive elements. The objective of this technique is to ensure that interactive elements receive focus in an order that follows sequences and relationships in the content. When designing the content, the interactive elements such as links and form controls are placed in the content so that the default tab order follows the sequences and relationships in the content. Each technology defines its default tab order, so the mechanism for placing the controls in the content will depend on the technology used.
As an example, in HTML, the default focus order follows the order in which elements appear in the content source. When the order of the HTML source matches the visual order of the Web page, tabbing through the content follows the visual layout of the content. When the source order does not match the visual order, the tab order through the content must reflect the logical relationships in the content that are displayed visually. A form contains two text input fields that are to be filled in sequentially.
The first text input field is placed first in the content, the second input field is placed second. A form contains two, side-by-side sections of information. One section contains information about an applicant; the other section contains information about the applicant's spouse.
All the interactive elements in the applicant section receive focus before any of the elements in the spouse section. The elements in each section receive focus in the reading order of that section. Check that the order of the interactive elements in the content is the same as the logical order. The purpose of this technique is to allow authors to play a sound on their Web page but avoid the problem of users not being able to use their screen readers due to interference by the content sound.
It also allows the author to avoid putting controls on the Web page to control the sound - and the problem faced by users with screen readers in finding the control when unable to hear their screen reader. The technique is simple. The sound plays for 3 or less seconds and stops automatically. Example 2: A homepage opens with the chairman saying "Binfor, where quality is our business. Example 3: A Web page opens with instructions on how to get started: "To begin, press the enter key.
The objective of this technique is to make content easier to use by making the placement of repeated components more predictable. This technique helps maintain consistent layout or presentation between Web pages by presenting components that are repeated in these Web units in the same relative order each time they appear.
Other components can be inserted between them, but their relative order is not changed. This technique also applies to navigational components that are repeated. Web pages often contain a navigation menu or other navigational component that allows the user to jump to other Web pages.
This technique makes the placement of navigational components more predictable by presenting the links or programmatic references inside a navigational component in the same relative order each time the navigational component is repeated. Other links can be removed or inserted between the existing ones, for example to allow navigation inside a subsection of a set of Web pages, but the relative order is not changed. A Web site has a logo, a title, a search form and a navigation bar at the top of each page; these appear in the same relative order on each page where they are repeated.
On one page the search form is missing but the other items are still in the same order. A Web site has a left-hand navigation menu with links to the major sections of the site. When the user follows a link to another section of the site, the links to the major sections appear in the same relative order in the next page. Sometime links are dropped and other links are added, but the other links always stay in the same relative order. For example, on a Web site of a company that sells products and offers training, when a user moves from the section on products to the section on training, the links to individual products are removed from the navigation list, while links to training offerings are added.
List components that are repeated on each Web page in a set of Web pages for example, on each page in a Web site. For each component, check that it appears in the same relative order with regard to other repeated components on each Web page where it appears. For each navigational component, check that the links or programmatic references are always in the same relative order.
The objective of this technique is to make the definition of a word, phrase, or abbreviation available by providing the definition in a glossary. A glossary is an alphabetical list of words, One, phrases, and abbreviations with their definitions. Glossaries are most appropriate when the words, phrases, and abbreviations used within the content relate to a specific discipline or technology area. A glossary can also provide the pronunciation of a word or phrase.
The glossary is included at the end of the Web page or the glossary is located via one of the mechanisms for locating content within a set of Web pages.
See Understanding Success Criterion 2. If the glossary contains several definitions for the same word, phrase, or abbreviation, simply providing the glossary is not sufficient to satisfy this Success Criterion. A different technique should be used to find the correct definition. This is especially important if the uses of the word, phrase, or abbreviation are not unique within the Web page, that is, if different occurrences of the item have different definitions.
Users of on line chat forums have created several acronyms and abbreviations to speed up typing conversations on the computer. The site provides a glossary page that lists the expansions for the commonly used acronyms and abbreviations. A Web page discussing mathematical theory includes a glossary of commonly used mathematical terms, abbreviations and acronyms. Dutch text uses the phrase ' Hij ging met de kippen op stok ' He went to roost with the chickens.
The glossary explains that this phrase means ' Hij ging vroeg naar bed ' He went to bed early. The American novel "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" includes many idiomatic expressions that were used in the southwestern United States in the s. In an online edition designed for students, each idiomatic expression is linked to an item in the glossary.
Note: The definition of abbreviation used in WCAG is: "shortened form of a word, phrase, or name where the original expansion has not been rejected by the organization that it refers to and where the abbreviation has not become part of the language. This is one of a series of techniques for locating content that are sufficient for addressing Success Criterion 2.
A site map is a Web page that provides links to different sections of the site. To make the site map available within the site, at a minimum every page that is listed in the site map contains a link to the site map. It offers an alternative to complex navigation bars that may be different at different parts of the site. There are different types of site maps. The simplest and most common kind of site map is an outline that shows links to each section or sub-site.
Such outline views do not show more complex relationships within the site, such as links between pages in different sections of the site. The site maps for some large sites use headings that expand to show additional detail about each section. A site map describes the contents and organization of a site.
It is important that site maps be updated whenever the site is updated. For example, a Web page is not a valid site map when any one of the following is true:.
The site map shows the different sections of the Web site, and shows some of the substructure within those sections. The site map for an on-line magazine lists all the sections of the magazine and the subsections in each section. Usability Glossary: sitemap. For each page in the site, check that the page can be reached by following some set of links that start at the site map. A table of contents provides links to sections and subsections of the same document.
The information in the document is usually organized hierarchically, and is intended to be read sequentially. Just as there could be many books in a library, each with its own table of contents, a Web site may contain many documents, each with its own table of contents.
The table of contents typically includes only major sections of the document, though in some cases an expanded table of contents that provides a more detailed view of a complex document may be desirable.
The sections of the document could be located on the same Web page or divided into multiple Web pages. A table of contents is particularly useful when a document is divided into multiple Web pages. There is a distinction between a table of contents and other Navigational elements such as a Navigation Bar or Site Map.
A table of contents provides links to sections of the same document. Those sections could be located on the same Web page or spread across multiple Web pages. But together, they make a complete idea.
To better understand this, consider a hard copy book which has sections. Each section belongs to the book. There could be many books in a library. In this example, the "library" is the entire Web site. The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2. The hierarchy of the table of contents reflects the organization of the sections, and each item in the table of contents is a link that takes the user directly to that section.
Check that the values and order of the entries in the table of contents correspond to the names and order of the sections of the document. A breadcrumb trail helps the user to visualize how content has been structured and how to navigate back to previous Web pages, and may identify the current location within a series of Web pages.
A breadcrumb trail either displays locations in the path the user took to reach the Web page, or it displays the location of the current Web page within the organization of the site. Breadcrumb trails are implemented using links to the Web pages that have been accessed in the process of navigating to the current Web page.
They are placed in the same location within each Web page in the set. It can be helpful to users to separate the items in the breadcrumb trailing with a visible separator. A developer searches within the Web site of an authoring tool manufacturer to find out how to create hyperlinks. The search results bring him to a Web page with specific instructions for creating hyperlinks using the authoring tool.
It contains the following links to create a breadcrumb trail:. In this example the breadcrumb trail does not contain the title of the current Web page, "How to create hyperlinks". That information is available as the title of the Web page. A photographer's portfolio Web site has been organized into different galleries and each gallery has further been divided into categories.
A user who navigates through the site to a Web page containing a photo of a Gentoo penguin would see the following breadcrumb trail at the top of the Web page:. All of the items except "Gentoo Penguin" are implemented as links. The current location, Gentoo Penguin, is included in the breadcrumb trail but it is not implemented as a link. The information architecture of an ecommerce Web site is categorized from general to increasingly more specific product subsections.
The trail begins with "You are here" and ends with the current page. Items in the trail are clickable or tappable links with the exception of "You are here" and "Laptops.
In this example a h2 element, a nav element with an aria-label attribute, and Two (File unordered list are used to provide semantics. The markup would be styled using CSS to display the breadcrumb trail horizontally.
Working example: Breadcrumb example. HTML5 Bread crumb navigation. Check that the breadcrumb trail displays the correct navigational sequence to reach the current location or the correct hierarchical path to the current location within the site structure.
For a breadcrumb trail that does not include the current location:. This technique provides a short text alternative for Live audio-only and live video-only content. This text may be used in combination with a full text alternative for time-based media for audio or videoor in combination with audio description for video.
Those alternatives, however, are not part of this technique. The purpose of this technique is to ensure that the user can determine what the non-text content is, even if they cannot access it. NOTE: Even if full alternatives are also available, it is important that users be able to identify the non-text content when they encounter it so that they are not confused, and so that they can associate it with the full alternative when they encounter it.
A live video feed of the east coast highway has the following descriptive label "Live video picture of East Coast Highway just south of the I interchange showing current traffic conditions.
A live audio feed of the Mississippi House of Representatives has the following descriptive label "Live audio from the microphones in the Mississippi House of Representatives. The purpose of this technique is to provide an accessible alternative way of presenting the information in a synchronized media presentation. In order to present the same information in accessible form, this technique involves creating a document that tells the same story and presents the same information as the synchronized media.
Such a document is sometimes called a screenplay. It includes all the important dialogue and actions as well as descriptions of backgrounds etc. If an actual screenplay was used to create the synchronized media in the first place, this can be a good place to start. In production and editing however, the synchronized media usually changes from the screenplay. For this technique, the original screenplay would be corrected to match the dialogue and what actually happens in the final edited form of the synchronized media.
In addition, some special types of synchronized media include interaction that has to occur at particular places in the playing of the synchronized media. Sometimes it may result in an action taking place e. Sometimes it may change the course of the synchronized media e.
In those cases links or some other mechanism would be used in the alternative for time-based media to allow people using the alternative to be able to have the same options and abilities as those using the synchronized media. A training film shows employees how to use a new piece of equipment. It involves a person talking throughout while they demonstrate the operation. The screenplay used to create the training film is used as a starting point. It is then edited and corrected to match the dialogue etc.
The film and the resulting alternative for time-based media are then made available on the company Web site. Employees can then use either or both to learn how to use the machine. An interactive shopping environment is created that allows users to steer themselves around in a virtual store and shop. An alternative for time-based media allows the users to access the same shopping in text with links to choose aisles and to purchase things instead of dragging them into a virtual shopping basket.
View the synchronized media presentation while referring to the alternative for time-based media. Check that the dialogue in the alternative for time-based media matches the dialogue in the synchronized media presentation. Check that the alternative for time-based media has descriptions of actions and expressions of any 'actors' people, animals etc. The objective of this technique is to provide the definition of words, phrases, jargon, or abbreviation expansions by adding a mechanism to access an on-line dictionary to the Web page.
This technique uses existing resources on the Web to provide the definition rather than requiring the author to create a glossary or other mechanism within the site. By providing access from within the Web page, a user can easily locate the desired definition.
This technique can only be used if the online dictionary returns the correct definition. A site that describes how a computer works would include a search feature on each Web page.
The search would be performed against an on-line dictionary of computer terms, acronyms, and abbreviations. Since the dictionary is specialized for computer terms, the acronym expansion found should be more accurate than with a general dictionary.
An online course in English grammar provides a paragraph of text which introduces new vocabulary words. Each of the vocabulary words is a link to an on-line dictionary to find the definition of the word. Activating a link will open up a new window to an online dictionary site with the specific vocabulary word defined. Check that a mechanism exists within the Web page to search for the word, phrase, or abbreviation via an on-line dictionary.
Check that the result of the search of the dictionary for the word, phrase, or abbreviation is the correct definition. The objective of this technique is to provide context sensitive help for users as they enter data in forms by providing at least one link to the help information on each Web page.
The link targets a help page with information specific to that Web page. Another approach is to provide a help link for every interactive control. Positioning this link immediately before or after the control allows users to easily tab to it if they have problems in the control. Displaying the help information in a new browser window ensures that any data that has already been entered into the form will not be lost.
NOTE: A link is not the only means to provide help. The example below shows a label element that includes a help link. Including the help link within the label element allows screen reader users to have access to the help link when interacting with the input form control. Determine if there is at least one link to help information explaining how to complete the form on this Web page.
Determine if there are links either before or after each interactive control to information specific to that control. The objective of this technique is to provide a way to link to remote long descriptions in technologies that do not have a long description feature built directly into them e.
With this technique, the long description is provided in another location than the non-text content. A link to that long description is provided that is immediately adjacent to the non-text content.
The link can be immediately before or after the non-text content. If the description is located along with other text then put "End of description" at the end so that they Two (File when to stop reading and return to the main content.
If a "Back" button will not take the person back to the point from which they jumped, then a link back to the non-text content location is provided. This technique was commonly used in HTML before 'longdesc' was added to the specification. This technique is not technology specific and can be used in any technology that supports links.
There is a bar chart on a Web page showing the sales for the top three salespeople. Immediately after the non-text content is a small image denoting a long description. The alternate text for the image is "Long description of chart".
The image links to the bottom of the page where there is a section titled "Description of charts on this page". The link points to this specific description: "Sales for October show Mary leading with units. Mike follows closely with Chris rounds out our top 3 with sales of Immediately after the non-text content is a small image denoting the long description. The image links to another page titled "Description of charts in October Sales Report". The description link points to this specific description: "Sales for October show Mary leading with units.
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Aug 19, · The Polish Damsire (G2) – Aug 16 @ PM EST (1) by beerkeg. G1, Birmingham Stakes: A tough group of fillies will go 10f in this battle. (3) by naskippy. More BTB Articles: Upcoming Big Races The Hit Me Handicap. NY $M 2d 09h 38m 47s: The Nonethorpe. SUR $K 2d 09h 38m 47s: Blue Diamond Road. Computer science is the study of computation and information. Computer science deals with theory of computation, algorithms, computational problems and the design of computer systems hardware, software and applications. Computer science addresses both human-made and natural information processes, such as communication, control, perception, learning and intelligence especially in human .
Aug 19, · The Polish Damsire (G2) – Aug 16 @ PM EST (1) by beerkeg. G1, Birmingham Stakes: A tough group of fillies will go 10f in this battle. (3) by naskippy. More BTB Articles: Upcoming Big Races The Hit Me Handicap. NY $M 2d 09h 38m 47s: The Nonethorpe. SUR $K 2d 09h 38m 47s: Blue Diamond Road.
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