View credits, reviews, tracks and shop for the Vinyl release of English Gypsy on Discogs. Label: Decca - DL • Format: Vinyl LP, Album • Country: Canada • /5(2). English Gypsy, an Album by Gypsy. Released in on Decca (catalog no. DL; Vinyl LP). Genres: Psychedelic Rock, Rock/5(1). The word Gypsy is now sometimes considered derogatory or offensive, and has been replaced in many official contexts by Romani or Roma, but it remains the most widely used term for members of this community among English speakers.
Such jobs included working as livestock traders, animal trainers and exhibitors, entertainers, fortune tellers, and metalsmiths.
Based on discrimination against the Roma coupled with their migratory culture, school attendance and literacy rates among Romanies have traditionally been low. In fact, most of what we know about the Romani culture has been passed down through oral histories because the Romani language remains largely unwritten. Traditional Romani and Gypsy culture upholds family, customs, and self-governance.
In Romani communities that remain itinerant, the groups travel in bands made up of ten to several hundred extended families traveling together in caravans. Not attending these events could be viewed as disrespectful and may eventually lead to isolation from the broader Romani community. Many Roma also follow traditional Romani customs. In particular, community leaders and courts of elders are responsible for adjudicating conflicts and administering punishments within their particular Romani group.
Punishment can include a loss of reputation and, in extreme cases, expulsion from the Romani community. Some European Romanies remain nomadicliving in camps or caravans and moving from town to town in cars and RVs. Accessed 23 Aug. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for Gypsy Gypsy. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free!
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Save Word. There are an estimated one million Roma in the United States ;  andin Brazilmost of whose ancestors emigrated in the 19th century from Eastern Europe. Brazil also includes a notable Romani community descended from people deported by the Portuguese Empire during the Portuguese Inquisition. The Romani language is divided into several dialects which together have an estimated number of speakers of more than two million. Many Romani are native speakers of the dominant language in their country of residence or of mixed languages combining the dominant language with a dialect of Romani; those varieties are sometimes called Para-Romani.
Perceived as derogatory, many of these exonyms are falling out of standard usage and being replaced by a version of the name Roma. Rom means man or husband in the Romani language. In the Romani languageRom is a masculine noun, meaning 'man of the Roma ethnic group' or 'man, husband', with the plural Roma. The feminine of Rom in the Romani language is Romni. However, in most cases, in other languages Rom is now used for people of both genders.
Romani is the feminine adjective, while Romano is the masculine adjective. Some Romanies use Rom or Roma as an ethnic name, while others such as the Sintior the Romanichal do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group.
Sometimes, rom and romani are spelled with a double ri. In the English language according to the Oxford English DictionaryRom is a noun with the plural Roma or Roms and an adjective, while Romani Romany is also a noun with the plural Romanithe RomaniRomaniesor Romanis and an adjective. Both Rom and Romani have been in use in English since the 19th century as an alternative for Gypsy.
Occasionally, the double r spelling e. The term Roma is increasingly encountered,   as a generic term for the Romani people. Because all Romanis use the word Romani as an adjective, the term became a noun for the entire ethnic group.
The standard assumption is that the demonyms of the Romani people, Lom and Dom share the same origin. The Spanish term Gitano and French Gitan have similar etymologies. This designation owes its existence to the belief, common in the Middle Ages, that the Romani, or some related group such as the Middle Eastern Album) peoplewere itinerant Egyptians. According to one narrative, Album) were exiled from Egypt as punishment for allegedly harbouring the infant Jesus.
This exonym is sometimes written with capital letter, to show that it designates an ethnic group. Another common designation of the Romani people is Cingane alt. Tsinganoi, Zigar, Zigeunerwhich likely derives from Athinganoithe name of a Christian sect with whom the Romani or some related group became associated in the Middle Ages. For a variety of reasons, many Romanis choose not to register their ethnic identity in official censuses. There are an estimated 10 million Romani people in Europe as ofLP,  although some high estimates by Romani organizations give numbers as high as 14 million.
In the European Union there are an estimated 6 million Romanis. Like the Roma in general, many different ethnonyms are given to subgroups of Roma. Sometimes a subgroup uses more than one endonymis commonly known by an exonym or erroneously by the endonym of another subgroup.
The only name approaching an all-encompassing self-description is Rom. Subgroups have been described as, in part, a result of the castes and subcastes in India, which the founding population of Rom almost certainly experienced in their South Asian urheimat.
Many groups use names apparently derived from the Romani word kalo or calomeaning "black" or "absorbing all light". From the Balkans, they migrated throughout Europe and, in the nineteenth and later centuries, to the Americas. The Romani population in the United States is estimated at more than one million. The Romani people are mainly called by non-Romani ethnic Brazilians as ciganos.
There is no official or reliable count of the Romani populations worldwide. As of the early s, an estimated 3. The total number of Romani living outside Europe are primarily in the Middle East and North Africa and in the Americas, and are estimated in total at more than two million. Some countries do not collect data by ethnicity. The Romani people identify as distinct ethnicities based in part on territorial, cultural and dialectal differences, and self-designation.
Genetic findings suggest an Indian origin for Roma. But the luris ate the oxen and the wheat and came back a year later with their cheeks hollowed with hunger. The king, angered with their having wasted what he had given them, ordered them to pack up their bags and go wandering around the world on their donkeys. The linguistic evidence has indisputably shown that the roots of the Romani language lie in India: the language has grammatical characteristics of Indian languages and shares with them a large part of the basic lexicon, for example, regarding body parts or daily routines.
More exactly, Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi. It shares many phonetic features with Marwariwhile its grammar is closest to Bengali. Romani and Domari share some similarities: agglutination of postpositions of the second Layer or case marking clitics to the nominal stem, concord markers for the past tense, the neutralisation of gender marking in the plural, and the use of the oblique case as an accusative.
The Dom and the Rom therefore likely descend from two migration waves out of India, separated Album) several centuries. In phonologyRomani language shares several isoglosses with the Central branch of Indo-Aryan languages especially in the realization of some sounds of the Old Indo-Aryan.
However, it also preserves several dental clusters. In regards to verb morphology, Romani follows exactly the same pattern of northwestern languages such as Kashmiri and Shina through the adoption of oblique enclitic pronouns as person markers, lending credence to the theory of their Central Indian origin and a subsequent migration to northwestern India. Though the retention of dental clusters suggests a break from central languages during the transition from Old to Middle Indo-Aryan, the overall morphology suggests that the language participated in some of the significant developments leading toward the emergence of New Indo-Aryan languages.
Genetic findings in suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India and migrated as a group. The team also found the Roma to display genetic isolation, as well as "differential gene flow in time and space with non-Romani Europeans".
Genetic evidence supports the medieval migration from India. The Romani have been described as "a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations",  while a number of common Mendelian disorders among Romanies from all over Europe indicates "a common origin and founder effect ".
A study from by Gresham et al. Haplogroup I-P as H is not found at frequencies of over 3 percent among host populations, while haplogroups E and I are absent in South Asia.
It occurs at 5 percent among Hungarians although the carriers might be of Romani origin. They may have emerged from the modern Indian state of Rajasthan migrating to the northwest the Punjab regionSindh and Baluchistan of the Indian subcontinent around BC.
Their subsequent westward migration, possibly in waves, is now believed to have occurred beginning in about CE As these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with their families into the Byzantine Empire. This is lent further credence by its sharing exactly the same pattern of northwestern languages such as Kashmiri and Shina through the adoption of oblique enclitic pronouns as person markers.
The overall morphology suggests that Romani participated in some of the significant developments leading toward the emergence of New Indo-Aryan languagesthus indicating that the proto-Romani did not leave the Indian subcontinent until late in the second half of the first millennium.
Though according to a genomic study, the Romani reached the Balkans as early as the 12th century,  the first historical records of the Romani reaching south-eastern Europe are from the 14th century: inafter leaving Ireland on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, Irish Franciscan friar Symon Semeonis encountered a migrant group of Romani outside the town of Candia modern Heraklionin Cretecalling them "the descendants of Cain "; his account is the earliest surviving description by a Western chronicler of the Romani in Europe.
InLudolph of Saxony mentioned a similar people with a unique language whom he called Mandapolosa word some think derives from the Greek word mantes meaning prophet or fortune teller. Arounda fiefdom called the Feudum Acinganorum was established in Corfuwhich mainly used Romani serfs and to which the Romani on the island were subservient.
By the s, they were recorded in Germany;  and by the 16th century, Scotland and Sweden. The two currents met in France. Their early history shows a mixed reception. Although marks the first recorded transaction for a Romani slave in Wallachiathey were issued safe conduct by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in Romanies were ordered expelled from the Meissen region of Germany inLucerne inMilan inFrance inCatalonia inSweden inEngland in see Egyptians Actand Denmark in Inany Romani found in Switzerland were ordered put to death, with similar rules established in England inand Denmark inwhereas Portugal began deportations of Romanies to its colonies in A English statute gave Romanis special privileges that other wanderers lacked.
France passed a similar law in Catherine the Great of Russia declared the Romanies "crown slaves" a status superior to serfsbut also kept them out of certain parts of the capital. During the latter part of the 17th century, around the Franco-Dutch Warboth France and Holland needed thousands of men to fight. Some recruitment took the form of rounding up vagrants and the poor to work the galleys and provide the armies' labour force. With this background, Romanis were targets of both the French and the Dutch.
After the wars, and into the first decade of the 18th century, Romanis were slaughtered with impunity throughout Holland. Heidenjachtentranslated as "heathen hunt" happened throughout Holland in an attempt to eradicate them. Although some Romani could be kept as slaves in Wallachia and Moldavia until abolition inthe majority traveled as free nomads with their wagons, as alluded to in the spoked wheel symbol in the Romani flag. In England, Romani were sometimes expelled from small communities or hanged; in France, they were branded, and their heads were shaved; in Moravia and Bohemiathe women were marked by their ears being severed.
As a result, large groups of the Romani moved to the East, toward Polandwhich was more tolerant, and Russiawhere the Romani were treated more fairly as long as they paid the annual taxes. Romani began emigrating to North America in colonial times, with small groups recorded in Virginia and French Louisiana. The most significant number immigrated in the early 20th century, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash. Many Romani also settled in South America. They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen paramilitary death squads on the Eastern Front.
The treatment of the Romani in Nazi puppet states differed markedly. In Czechoslovakiathey were labeled a "socially degraded stratum", and Romani women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce their population.
This policy was implemented with large financial incentives, threats of denying future welfare payments, with misinformation, or after administering drugs. An official inquiry from the Czech Republic, resulting in a report Decemberconcluded that the Communist authorities had practised an assimilation policy towards Romanis, which "included efforts by social services to control the birth rate in the Romani community. The problem of sexual sterilisation carried out in the Czech Republic, either with improper motivation or illegally, exists," said the Czech Public Defender of Rights, recommending state compensation for women affected between and Germany, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland "all have histories of coercive sterilization of minorities and other groups".
The traditional Romanies place a high value on the extended family. Virginity is essential in unmarried women. Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Romani practise of child marriage.
Romani law establishes that the man's family must pay a bride price to the bride's parents, but only traditional families still follow it. Once married, the woman joins the husband's family, where her main job is to tend to her husband's and her children's needs and take care of her in-laws. The power structure in the traditional Romani household has at its top the oldest man or grandfather, and men, in general, have more authority than women.
Women gain respect and power as they get older. Young wives begin gaining authority once they have children. Romani social behavior is strictly regulated by Indian social customs  "marime" or "marhime"still respected by most Roma and by most older generations of Sinti.
This regulation affects many aspects of life and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs because they produce emissions and the rest of the lower body. Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed separately.
Items used for eating are also washed in a different place. Childbirth is considered impure and must occur outside the dwelling place. The mother is deemed to be impure for forty days after giving birth. Death is considered What Makes A Man A Man? - English Gypsy* - English Gypsy (Vinyl, and affects the whole family of the dead, who remain impure for a period of time. In contrast to the practice of cremating the dead, Romani dead must be buried.
In Romani philosophy, Romanipen also romanypenromaniperomanyperomanimosromaimosromaniya is the totality of the Romani spirit, Romani cultureRomani Lawbeing a Romani, a set of Romani strains. An ethnic Romani is considered a gadjo in the Romani society if he has no Romanipen.
Sometimes a non-Romani may be considered a Romani if he has Romanipen. Usually this is an adopted child. It has been hypothesized that it owes more to a framework of culture rather than simply an adherence to historically received rules.
Most Romani people are Christian,  others Muslim ; some retained their ancient faith of Hinduism from their original homeland of Indiawhile others have their own religion and political organization. The ancestors of modern-day Romani people were Hindubut adopted Christianity or Islam depending on the regions through which they had migrated.
In neighboring countries such as Serbia and Greecemost Romani inhabitants follow the practice of Orthodoxy. It is likely that the adherence to differing religions prevented families from engaging in intermarriage.
In Spain, most Gitanos are Roman Catholics. However, the proportion of followers of Evangelical Christianity among Gitanos is higher than among the rest of Spaniards. Since the turn of the 21st century, Sara e Kali is understood to have been Kalian Indian deity brought from India by the refugee ancestors of the Roma people; as the Roma became Christianized, she was absorbed in a syncretic way and venerated as a saint.
Saint Sarah is now increasingly being considered as "a Romani Goddess, the Protectress of the Roma" and an "indisputable link with Mother India". Romanies often adopt the dominant religion of their host country in the event that a ceremony associated with a formal religious institution is necessary, such as a baptism or funeral their particular belief systems and indigenous religion and worship remain preserved regardless of such adoption processes. The Roma continue to practice " Shaktism ", a practice with origins in India, whereby a female consort is required for the worship of a god.
Adherence to this practice means that for the Roma who worship the Christian God, prayer is conducted through the Virgin Maryor her mother, Saint Anne. Shaktism continues over one thousand years after the people's separation from India. For the Roma communities that have resided in the Balkans for numerous centuries, often referred to as "Turkish Gypsies", the following histories apply for religious beliefs:.
In Ukraine and Russia, the Roma populations are also Muslim as the families of Balkan migrants continue to live in these locations. Their ancestors settled on the Crimean peninsula during the 17th and 18th centuries, but then migrated to Ukraine, southern Russia and the Povolzhie along the Volga River.
Formally, Islam is the religion that these communities align themselves with and the people are recognized for their staunch preservation of the Romani language and identity. In Poland and Slovakiatheir populations are Roman Catholic, many times adopting and following local, cultural Catholicism as a syncretic system of belief that incorporates distinct Roma beliefs and cultural aspects.
For example, many Polish Roma delays their Church wedding due to the belief that sacramental marriage is accompanied by divine ratification, creating a virtually indissoluble union until the couple consummate, after which the sacramental marriage is dissoluble only by the death of a spouse. Therefore, for Polish Roma, once married, one can't ever divorce.
Bulgaria's popular "wedding music", too, is almost exclusively performed by Romani musicians such as Ivo Papasova virtuoso clarinetist closely associated with this genre and Bulgarian pop-folk singer Azis. Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffraare Romani, as are many prominent performers of manele. Dances such as the flamenco of Spain and Oriental dances of Egypt are said to have originated from the Romani.
The distinctive sound of Romani music has also strongly influenced bolerojazzand flamenco especially cante jondo in Spain. European-style gypsy jazz "jazz Manouche" or "Sinti jazz" is still widely practiced among the original creators the Romanie People ; one who acknowledged this artistic debt was guitarist Django Reinhardt. The Romanies of Turkey have achieved musical acclaim from national and local audiences. Local performers usually perform for special holidays. Romani contemporary art is art created by Romani people.
It emerged at the climax of the process that began in Central and Eastern Europe in the lates, when the interpretation of the cultural practice of minorities was enabled by a paradigm shift, commonly referred to in specialist literature as the Cultural turn. The idea of the "cultural turn" was introduced; and this was also the time when the notion of cultural democracy became crystallized in the debates carried on at various public forums. Civil society gained strength, and civil politics appeared, which is a prerequisite for cultural democracy.
This shift of attitude in scholarly circles derived from concerns specific not only to ethnicity, but also to society, gender and class. Most Romani speak one of several dialects of the Romani language an Indo-Aryan language, with roots in Sanskrit. They also often speak the languages of the countries they live in. Typically, they also incorporate loanwords and calques into Romani from the languages of those countries and especially words for terms that the Romani language does not have.
Most of the speaker communities in these regions consist of later immigrants from eastern or central Europe. There are no concrete statistics for the number of Romani speakers, both in Europe and globally. However, a conservative estimation has been made at 3.
This makes Romani the second largest minority language in Europe, behind Catalan. In relation to dialect diversity, Romani works in the same way as most other European languages.
One of the most enduring persecutions against the Romani people was their enslavement. Slavery was widely practiced in medieval Europeincluding the territory of present-day Romania from before the founding of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in the 13th—14th century. The exact origins of slavery in the Danubian Principalities are not known.
There is some debate over whether the Romani people came to Wallachia and Moldavia as free men or were brought as slaves. Historian Nicolae Iorga associated the Roma people's arrival with the Mongol invasion of Europe and considered their slavery as a vestige of that era, in which the Romanians took the Roma as slaves from the Mongols and preserved their status to use their labor.
Other historians believe that the Romani were enslaved while captured during the battles with the Tatars. The practice of enslaving war prisoners may also have been adopted from the Mongols. Some Romani may have been slaves or auxiliary troops of the Mongols or Tatars, but most of them migrated from south of the Danube at the end of the 14th century, some time after the foundation of Wallachia.
By then, the institution of slavery was already established in Moldavia and possibly in both principalities. After the Roma migrated into the area, slavery became a widespread practice by the majority population. The Tatar slaves, smaller in numbers, were eventually merged into the Roma population.
Some branches of the Romani people reached Western Europe in the 15th century, fleeing as refugees from the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. In Western Europe, such suspicions and discrimination against a people who were a visible minority resulted in persecution, often violent, with efforts to achieve ethnic cleansing until the modern era. In times of social tension, the Romani suffered as scapegoats; for instance, they were accused of bringing the plague during times of epidemics.
The Spanish Crown ordered a nationwide raid that led to the break-up of families as all able-bodied men were interned into forced labor camps in an attempt at ethnic cleansing.
The measure was eventually reversed and the Romanis were freed as protests began to arise in different communities, sedentary romanis being highly esteemed and protected in rural Spain. Later in the 19th century, Romani immigration was forbidden on a racial basis in areas outside Europe, mostly in the English-speaking world.
Argentina in prohibited immigration by Roma, as did the United States in
Nov 06, · Welsh Romanies, Photo by Geoff Charles 6. Get Your Pots A Cookin’ Cause your man’s not really going to do it for you. Foraging is a . T he image of the Gypsy conjures up ideas of a carefree people, who live life without rules and restrictions. It is a common occurrence for non-Gypsies to hashtag #gypsy or #gypsy life while spending a lazy day at the beach, hair out, not a worry in the world. In reality, being a real Romany Gypsy is not a life of lackadaisical sea-shore living. Some Gypsy words are used in English such as cosh (a piece of wood) kushti (good) wonga (money) chav (towny) - from chavo meaning lad, originally from Sanskrit gaff (place of .
Search gypsy woman and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso. You can complete the definition of gypsy woman given by the English Definition dictionary with other English dictionaries: Wikipedia, Lexilogos, Oxford, Cambridge, Chambers Harrap, Wordreference, Collins Lexibase dictionaries, Merriam Webster.
Culture Gypsies Gypsies Gypsies are a people found in many countries. The name Gypsy comes from the word ‘ Egyptian ’ because Gypsies were once thought to have come from sioprovcabradeperfscormarcodenmenssol.co people now believe that they originally came from India. In the US Gypsies are called Roma, and in Britain they are known as Romanies or sioprovcabradeperfscormarcodenmenssol.co name travellers is more often used for . Aug 21, · Mostly, Gypsy people are no different than other immigrant or marginalized groups; they live big, loud, and proud, refusing to be ashamed of .
Name Gypsy Categories. The name Gypsy is in the following categories: American Names, Cowgirl Names, English Names. (If you would like to suggest one or more categories for the name, click here).We have plenty of different baby name categories to search for special meanings plus popular and unique names, search our database before choosing but also note .
The term "gypsies" refers to an ethnic group of people called the Roma or the Romani (also spelled Romany). The word “gypsy” is often considered derogatory due to . gypsy man is when someone scavenges or begs for items like food, money,when they already have it.
View credits, reviews, tracks and shop for the Gatefold Vinyl release of English Gypsy on Discogs. Label: Decca - DL • Format: Vinyl LP, Album Gatefold • Country: US • Genre: Rock • Style: Classic Rock/5(6).
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